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are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
They were known during the colonial years to the French as the "Iroquois League," and later as the "Iroquois Confederacy," and to the English as the "Five Nations" (before 1722), and later as the "Six Nations," comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora peoples.
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Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin— the earliest such proposal is by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, and is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said— with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi— and of Koué, which is a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, and sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter. His preferred etymology at the time was from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he later revised his theory to state that the source was Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw.
Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance, and by 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, and the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown." A more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M.
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin.The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Hewitt responded to Hale's etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages. Voices From Wounded Knee: In The Words of the Participants. Washington: University Press of America, Inc., 1983. Peace, Power, Righteousness: an indigenous manifesto. Blood Narrative: Indigenous Identity in American Indian and Maori Literary and Activist Texts.
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